Bullets, like rifles, are labeled using caliber. The caliber of a bullet is the measurement of the slug’s diameter. The slug is the projectile portion of the round, as opposed to the cartridge which is ejected. To put it simply, a bullet’s width determines its caliber. A .22 round is twentytwo one hundredths of one inch in diameter. There are also multiple bullet styles including pointed, hollow point, flat, round pointed, and mushroomed.
A hunter must determine which ammunition is best for his rifle, his targeted game, and the distance he expects to have to fire. Luckily, ballistics tables exist to help him decide exactly what to buy. These catalogs also contain information such as bullet energy and muzzle velocity. Those are fancy ways of describing how hard a bullet hits and how fast it travels.
All the designations of ammunition are important but unnecessary to memorize or even understand. Luckily, a correct cartridge designation for any rifle is stamped on the barrel or the chamber. Any variations which may suit your needs can be explained by the expert who sells you your gun. He will also have a ballistics table to show you. For what it’s worth, a cartridge with at least 900 foot-pounds will kill a deer. It will take 1,500 to kill and elk and 2,100 for a moose.